Monday, January 7, 2008

Why Agile Methods Reduce Cost

The greatest cost of software development is complexity:
  1. The problems we are trying to solve are complex. The customers often don't understand the requirements completely before the software development starts.
  2. The mapping between the requirements and the software is also complex, so that misunderstandings between the customers and the developers are the rule and not exceptions.
  3. The software itself is complex. It is hard for the developers to get an overview of what it does, and the consequences of modifying the software are hard to predict.
This complexity adds risk to software development projects, so it is actually uncommon for software projects to complete in time and on budget. Complexity also results in poor quality, since errors occur all the way in the development process; in the requirements, while mapping the requirements to the implementation, and in the implementation.

The risk and the low quality obviously increases the development cost. The cost is also increased by the the need for more developers and experts who know how to handle the complexity, and the need for substantial testing to find and fix errors.

So how can we deal with this complexity?

Requirements
We cannot reduce the complexity of the requirements, but I beleive a good domain model is important to understand complex requirements. Make the model concrete by using examples. Model the object instances for a use case instance, and go through the variations and changes that can happen with the customer.

Communication
The number one success factor in development projects is communication. We need to improve communication between customers and developers, and within the development team.

Agile methods does this through a number of key practices:
  • Iterative development gives rapid feedback on misunderstandings between customers and developers.
  • Ideally, a customer should be available to the developers all the time.
  • Daily stand-up meetings improve the communication within the team.
  • Pair programming.
Also, the domain model is very valuable as a means for communicating within the team.

Software Complexity
By complexity of software I mean how many thoughts the developer has to hold in his head at once. Early Java frameworks separated the code into lots of losely connected classes and XML files. The purpose was reuse and easy configuration, but it nevertheless made the program fragmented and hard to understand.

I personally hate it when I have to jump from a Java class to struts-config.xml to find the name of a form Java class. I just want to push F3. I find it ironic that software developers that are designing user interfaces for a living can come up with something as awkard as XML configuration files.

It is said that the human mind can hold between 5 and 9 pieces of information at once. If you need to hold the 1 action class, 1 form, 1 DAO, 1 JSP page, 2 XML files and 1 Javascript file, that doesn't leave much space for the feature you are trying to develop.

Luckily, this situation is beeing addressed by a new generation of programming languages and frameworks such as Ruby on Rails.

I beleive the cost of switching to a simpler framework will pay back several times by the improved speed that comes by being able to focus on what you are actually trying to do.

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

Nice, but if you are going to speak about agile and saving time/money you really need to talk about the TDD aspect as well.

There was no mention on how agile advocates some form of testing. Be it test first (true TDD) or test after.

Lars said...

Absolutely! Now you've got me inspired for my next post!

Isaac Rodriguez said...

How did we go from Agile Methods Reducing Cost, to Ruby on Rails? I am sorry, but you lost me.

Lars said...

Point taken. The headline wasn't accurate. I'm thinking about Ruby on Rails as an agile framework, but it's not a method.